Cordless drill, as the name suggests, does not have a power cord that needs to be plugged in any power source. Instead, a cordless drill uses batteries for power. Cordless drills are mainly used for two kinds of purposes, which are making holes in wood, concrete, and other kinds of surfaces and fixing screws and fasteners for drywall installation, assembling furniture, installing fixtures, etc. Some of the major features of a cordless drill have been detailed here.
The modern cordless drills use Lithium-ion batteries for power. The earlier models used Nickel-Cadmium batteries. The voltage rating of the batteries determines the power of a cordless drill. Light-duty cordless drills have 6V to 12V batteries and are suited for light household projects. Medium cordless drills have batteries with a maximum voltage of 18V and are suitable for drilling purposes except on very hard surfaces. Heavy-duty cordless drills have batteries of 24V to as much as 36V and are designed for large scale construction projects.
The capacities of batteries used in cordless drills are measured in Amp-hours denoted by Ah. The greater the Ah of the battery, the longer will be its charge last.
Chuck is the part of the cordless drill at its end into which the drill bit enters. The drill bit is the point that enters into the surface for drilling. The size of the chuck determines the maximum size of the drill bit, which it can accommodate. A cordless drill having 13mm chuck will fit all sizes of drill bits, including large-sized drill bits. A small cordless drill having 10mm chuck, on the other hand, cannot fit large drill bits and can only be used for drilling small holes.
The modern models of cordless drills have keyless chuck. Keyless chuck can be manually loosened or tightened without any chuck key, unlike the older models which need chuck key.
Torque is the rotational force exerted by the cordless drill on the surface. It is measured in Newton-meter. The torque rating of the cordless drill indicates its drilling power. The torque rating is not essential if the cordless drill is to be used on wood and plastic because all kinds of cordless drills irrespective of torque are capable of drilling on such surfaces. Torque rating becomes an important factor if the cordless drill is to be used on hard surfaces such as concrete or metal. For drilling on hard surfaces, high torque is necessary.
Cheap models of cordless drills have only a single speed. Dual speed setting is usually present in other models. Dual speed means one speed is for drilling while another speed setting is for driving screws. The desirable feature of cordless drills is variable speed controls. This feature provides high flexibility to the user.
A cordless drill can run on either standard or brushless motor. There are many advantages of a brushless motor over the standard motor. These include reduced friction, higher speed, optimum use of battery power, and more life. However, cordless drills equipped with the brushless motor are expensive.